By Ilham Khuri-Makdisi
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Extra info for The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914
62 Whether or not some of the venues were explicitly designed as radical forums, they often ended up playing this role. for instance, the famous world exhibitions, a staple of the late nineteenth century, began to see booths for labor movements and radical groups as early as 1862. 63 The late nineteenth century was also the era of municipal socialism, whereby various radical projects were conceived and implemented by municipalities, the quintessential nineteenth-century urban institution. ”64 Municipal socialism seems to have quickly become popular elsewhere in the world, notably in alexandria.
Throughout the nineteenth century mass education was one of the main paths espoused and expounded by reformists and radicals in their mission to tackle the social Question. The social Question referred to the emergence of a class of paupers, the rise of unemployment, and the terrible working and living conditions of wage laborers, issues that, if unresolved, could destroy society. To appreciate the anarchists’ contribution, both discursively and practically, to the topic of mass education, it is important to ﬁrst underline the fact that belief in the primacy of education was not exclusive to them.
Needless to say, freemasonry (like mutual aid associations) was not necessarily inherently progressive or radical. ”37 in places as far aﬁeld as lagos, Calcutta, and buenos aires in the 1890s, freemasonry was seen as an institution inextricably linked to visions of social reform. 38 a lT E R naT i v E v i sion s of T h E WoR l d oR dE R C oM i nG f RoM T h E s oU T h a n d T h E C olon i Z E d WoR l d anarchist networks played a central role in articulating and globally disseminating radical leftist ideas in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth, but they were only one set of networks among others busily disseminating alternative visions of social and world orders and contributing to the making of a global radical moment.
The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914 by Ilham Khuri-Makdisi